Posted in Exam Analysis

iGCSE Examiner Report Analysis

In Summer 2015, a lot of schools suffered from what was a very sudden and unexpected shift in the way the Cambridge iGCSE English exam was marked. In September 2015 I wrote this analysis of the exam, using the examiner report from the June 2015 series plus what we could glean from some of the papers we recalled for our centre. Hopefully this is of use to other English departments in the next few weeks!


iGCSE Examiners Report – Analysis for teaching 2015/16

In the Summer 2015 series, there were significant changes in emphasis to the way in which the iGCSE English paper was marked.


Pupil responses were expected to be “tethered” to the source text, but were penalised if they stuck to it too closely in terms of structure, language or detail. Many students, particularly the weaker ones, wrote responses to Q1 which mirrored the original text in its chronology, but this has been criticised by the board, “tended to stick closely to the events and ideas in the passage, and to present them in the same order.” The suggestion is that stronger candidates were able to use the detail in the passage, but made sophisticated decisions in order to structure their response anew.

Weaker students generally failed to notice changes in tone or emphasis in the source text – we should expect in the next exam series that the text will shift in mood or tone part way through, and prepare students to identify these shifts. Students who do not recognise these moments of change wrote “rather limited response(s)”.

A greater emphasis was placed on students’ development of detail from the passage, “sustain use of supporting detail throughout the response, firmly tethering any development to details in the passage.” – Students are encouraged to take note of any minor details in the passage, and flesh these out in their own response.

As in previous years, emphasis is placed on even coverage of the three bullet points in the question.

A far greater importance is given to the style of writing in Q1 – student were heavily penalised for not writing with a sharp awareness of journalistic style, “unselective narrative retelling of the events of the meeting – without developing a journalistic stance. Such responses lacked a sense of purpose.” This task demanded a “discursive, investigative tone”.

Action points and teaching priorities for 2015/16:

  • Give students strategies for planning and structuring responses which build on details, but stand apart from the original text in structure.
  • Explicitly teach students to identify where texts change in tone or mood, and to reflect these changes in their writing.
  • Teach students how to develop textual detail in an appropriate way which is still “tethered” to the original text.
  • Continue to emphasise the importance of students covering all three bullet points equally.
  • Explicitly teach stylistic writing for a range of potential task types.



Students must write in continuous prose and not, as some centres have done, in a table format (this is not something we have ever done.)

Student responses should do three things –  (1) Identify interesting and effective words/phrases, (2) explain the meaning of the word/phrase within context, (3) Explore the effect of the word/phrase on the reader.

Quotations selected needed to be very specific, and show “precise focus at word level”. Some less successful candidates simply “lifted the whole paragraph and offered a general comment.”

Action points and teaching priorities for 2015/16:

  • Teach students to explain the meaning of words/phrases within their context, rather than simply giving a dictionary definition – this changed focus should ensure that students are able to move on to their exploration of effects with more assurance.
  • Consider adjusting our recommended timings for Q2 – for students to write analysis at the required level of sophistication, they perhaps need a little more time than the recommended 25 minutes.


Students did not get marks for any correct answers outside of the original 15 points they made (unless they had gone back and crossed out previous points)

Although the question asks for ‘brief notes’, students whose notes were too brief did not get the mark, even if the point was valid. Students needed to be very clear in their responses, e.g. if the response was “it was difficult to collect enough firewood”, students would NOT have got the mark for simply saying “difficult to find firewood” as this response is not grammatically complete, and misses the key verb “was”. Students also failed to get the marks in this section if they spelled key words incorrectly or made other careless slips in accuracy, e.g. incorrect plurals, tense etc.


Similar to the writing marks in Q1, responses to the summary in Q3b was criticised because they followed the structure of the original text too closely. Students who did well and achieved all 5 marks in this section were those who organised the points thematically or in some way other than following their chronological order in the original text.

Students are reminded that they MUST use their own words in this section, and that any words or phrases (apart from key terminology) which are lifted from the original text will be heavily penalised.

Some students in this section became a little confused between the summary skills required here and the development skills required in Q1 and, as a result, attempted to develop points, straying away from the core meaning of the text.

Action points and teaching priorities for 2015/16:

  • Stress the importance of giving only 15 points for Q3a, and of crossing out the least relevant or repeated answers if they have gone above 15.
  • Teach strategies for proof reading, and for writing whole, grammatically sound sentences for Q3a.
  • Ensure that student prepare their responses to Q3b by re-ordering their notes by some other method than their original order in the text.
  • Reiterate the differences between ‘summary’ and ‘development’ in Q1 and Q3b.
Posted in Personal Reflection

Things I wish I’d known before my first week in teaching…

I am just about to start my sixth year as a teacher, and was having a chat with a family friend who is about to start his NQT year. As he picked my brains over coffee and told me all of the things he was worrying about already, I realised how much I wish I’d known when I had started five years ago. This is pretty simple stuff, but is not intended to be patronising –  in my first week on the job, I struggled to see past my own fear and focus on the things I could control. I hope some of these ideas are useful…

The first week – no need for bells and whistles:

Scott-660x330Don’t dwell too much on overly complicated lessons with 8 parts and all-singing, all-dancing resources. There is no way you’ll get through what you think you will, and you will exhaust yourself with planning before you even start. Just make sure that each first lesson with a new class is solid, and that you give them a chance to get to know you and what you expect in your classroom. Make sure that you have some sort of conversation, no matter how brief, with everyone in the room; if they feel that they have connected with you, they will be more likely to work well for you. Over the first few lessons with a group, you will begin to get a sense of how they work, what they need, and what they will respond to, which will make your ‘bells and whistles’ lessons even better when you do them later on.

Find out on your first day:

  1. How do you do photocopying/printing?
  2. How do you get in/out of the building at different times of the day?
  3. What is the absence procedure/phone number?
  4. How do teas and coffees work? Is there a machine? Do you have to bring your own?
  5. Is there a water fountain somewhere? Or drinking water in the staff room?
  6. How do you pay for food in the canteen (if you need to)? Cash? Fingerprint?!
  7. If you don’t have your own classroom – which rooms are you teaching in? Are they all on the same floor? Will you need a plan for getting yourself and your resources from one room to the next in between lessons?!
  8. Who do you speak to if you have any IT malfunctions, or SIMS issues which affect registers?

Marking is just as important as planning (if not more…):

Once students have completed work, the most powerful thing you can do is give meaningful, personalised feedback, and give them time to improve in a future lesson (for an excellent discussion on this, see this post from David Didau ‘What’s the point of marking books?’).

Marking is incredibly important, but do not strive for perfection – set a time limit per book, decide on a marking focus (i.e. whatever the objectives or success criteria were for that piece of work), and don’t get de-railed!

If you get behind with you marking, SAY SOMETHING! Everyone gets overwhelmed by the workload at some point, but if you ask for help from your NQT mentor or HOD, they will help you find some practical strategies to get through it all.

Avoid endless ‘to do’ lists:

These can become huge and unfocused, and soon stop becoming the organisational tools they should be. Use an important/not important, urgent/non urgent grid.


Unfortunately, the things you want to start with usually come under the not important/non urgent column, but organising things like this will help you prioritise the right things!

Be realistic about what you can achieve in the time you have – highlight two or three things to complete each day, but do them WELL!

Switch off:

Teaching is all consuming and can get overwhelming at certain points in the year. Find something to do outside of school time which is going to stop you from thinking about work. If you find yourself going in early to work, then staying late to work, then going home and working some more, then you need to rethink! I go in early every day (though this doesn’t work for everyone), then my rule is, if I stay late to work, I do NOT take work home. If I leave at 5pm, I take something home with me, but something manageable which won’t take me more than a couple of hours (NOT a whole set of books, but maybe 15 instead…). I also have at least 1 night a week where I do no work at all, and one whole day on the weekend which is work free.

Kids have short memories:

941349Don’t be too devastated if you have a dramatic incident with a student. When I first started teaching, I always felt as though because of my poor classroom management, I had destroyed my relationship with a student FOREVER. This is crazy. Yes, my behaviour management was still developing then (and still is!), but you have to accept that we are all human and we make errors in judgement. Better still, if you give that student a clean slate at the start of the next lesson, they will forgive YOU very quickly.

Love the kids, but manage the behaviour:

Don’t let a child be defined by their behaviour – it is not who they are. Kids will work for you if they feel that you like and care about them. Sometimes it is difficult to feel that bond with them in the face of all their crazy teenage outpourings of rage (especially when this is directed at us personally), but if you can see past that, you can see value in who they are underneath the anger. Ask how their weekend was, how their baby sister is, what food they like, and even share something of your own experiences with them. 9 times out of 10, if you have some sort of appreciation of who they are, separate from their behaviour, those issues will fix themselves. If you just see them as a ‘naughty’ kid, then they will sense that and do their best to live up to the label.

A boy I taught a couple of years ago, let’s call him Sam, called me a c*** on my second day in the job. He was vile in my lessons and incredibly disruptive for no reason I could see. However, during our detentions, after his initial telling off for whatever he’d done that time, we would talk about other things (all the anger aside, because I had clearly and calmly dealt with his behaviour already) It turned out that I had just become addicted to a video game he had recently completed. He told me how to kill the boss on my current level and from that point on, even though he regularly slipped up, he made much more of an effort in my lessons. Even more importantly, his slip-ups were far less damaging, because he knew I would deal with them in isolation, and that they would not damage my opinion of him.

Embrace the support staff:

Caretakers, cleaners, catering staff, duty staff, admin staff, finance staff, gardeners, bus drivers, teaching assistants, IT technicians – whoever they are, these people know more about education than many of the teachers, and especially more than any fresh faced NQT could ever know. These people are key to your survival when you first start teaching, and I would urge any NQT to step outside the teaching staff bubble and make friends with the whole staff body. Partly, this will help you settle in quickly and feel part of the school, but also, there is nothing like knowing the caretakers well when you realise you have left your car key in the building after hours! In my first year, a reprographics lady called Janet was like my school mum! She regularly helped me create resources last minute, gave me advice when I’d made one of my many mistakes, and yes, gave me the odd hug when I felt like I couldn’t cope! The site manager at my current school is ex army, and has happily had conversations with some of my students when they are struggling to cope with authority – he is brilliant.

I won’t call them ‘non-teaching colleagues’, because I believe that all support staff teach the kids in a multitude of ways, even though they are not in the classroom, but they do have a whole different slant on the students, and a refreshing perspective on teaching which can help you put things in perspective.

I’d be really grateful to hear any other reflections or advice to new teachers starting out! Get in touch @funkypedagogy or

Posted in Personal Reflection

What I’ve learned from spending a year in the right school…

Young teachers are leaving our profession in droves; between 40-50% have left the classroom by their fifth year. I am just finishing my fifth year in teaching and, despite some monumental challenges over the past 12 months, I am loving my job. I hope this doesn’t come across as a sickening, self-congratulatory blog about how much I love my job, and I am not expecting a pat on the back; I just wonder whether my experience this year could help those 40-50% who are on the edge and struggling to find their motivation again.

This time last year, I wrote a post: What I learned from spending a year in the wrong school. It was a therapeutic experience; I wrote in order to shed some bad memories and find the positives in what had been a very difficult year both professionally and personally. At Easter 2014 I took a job at my current school. It is a 3-18 academy in Bradford, which is officially rated a 3, but which feels like a 2 (you know, one of those places with a heart, which Ofsted refuses to recognise has more to offer than statistics). In the past 15 months I have dramatically changed my role in school, learned a raft of new skills, run complex projects and taught my socks off. But the most surprising thing about this year is that, for the first time ever, I have NOT made myself ill or had two weeks off with fatigue in the summer term!

The reasons for this, I think, are here:

  • I have rules (agreed with my partner). 1. No emails after 6pm on a week night. No emails on a Saturday. No emails outside the hours of 3-6pm on a Sunday. 2. Make time for lunch EVERY DAY. 3. Do something for pleasure every day – have made a LOT more time for reading this year.
  • I have focused on learning something new. I started playing the cello – it is wonderful, and has made me realise that it is ok to be the worst in the room at something! There is something liberating about being told what to do, and putting yourself completely in the hands of an expert.
  • I have an EXCELLENT head of department, who knows exactly how to get the best out of me. She gives me the freedom to do what I love, but tells me to stop when it is too much. She has helped me to become a better leader, and shown me that it is OK to rely on someone else – I have genuinely never been able to let go and trust other people to do a good job, but I know her standards are just as high as mine, and we make a pretty strong team!
  • I have learned that being a leader means letting go of the minutiae of school life, and looking at the bigger picture; if I help my colleagues to be the best they can be, then THEY will look after the students.
  • My school invests in a life coach/therapist, and our HR manager arranged for me to speak with her. Aside from the fact that I love talking about myself for an hour every few weeks, it is really helpful to talk through my stresses with someone who is completely removed. I’ve also learned some practical strategies for sleeping better, organising my work, and confronting things head on.
  • My Head and VP have worked very hard to recognise the things I do, validate my feelings about work, and put in place the things I need. They are supporting my ambitions, and for the first time, I feel like I’m being taken seriously.
  • I’ve realised that I am not the font of all creativity, and that being part of a strong team is far better than being the Jenny Show all by myself…

I won’t apologise for the gushy-ness of the above; it’s all true. I feel that there is so much negativity surrounding schools at the moment, that sharing something which is working, at least for me, is important.

So, this is the right school for me. Their mantra is that they put the kids first. Other schools I have worked at have said this too, but what they really meant was that they put the RESULTS first, and the knock on effect would be that the kids would have a better life. Obviously, I’m not going to argue against this – better results lead to better options and more opportunities. However, schools which focus only on academic success are in danger; their only intervention is based on whether the data paints the right picture, not on what is needed by a child. At my school, we know our kids. We know what makes them tick, and we go the extra mile to support them, regardless of their academic targets or attainment. This is how it should be. I have realised that, although I have been incredibly stressed and busy this year, it has been bearable because I believe in what the school is doing. In the past, I have had little faith in my school’s mission, but in my current school I am on board, and that’s the difference.

Here is what I’ve learned from spending a year in the RIGHT school:

1. If you believe in what the school is doing, you can cope with a LOT.

2. A change in role or direction is fine, as long as someone above you understands where you want to go in the end…

3. A good team is built on mutual respect; celebrate each others’ individual talents AND take time to appreciate the collective power of a department.

4. It is OK to manage your time, work and stress in your own way; don’t try to be like other people or worry how you will look if you go home before 4pm.

5. Trust and professional respect is about always doing exactly what you said you would do. Every time you walk the walk, that is money in the bank.

6. Approach new tasks and the development of new skills with enthusiasm and a fresh eye, but never be slow to ask for help.

I like to think that in a year’s time I will be reflecting on a less hectic, more stable year at school, but I know things will always feel crazy. I look forward to being in the same school for a long time; I want to consolidate, build, and invest properly in the young people who come through our doors.

Posted in A Level Teaching, Teaching Ideas

A Level Teaching Ideas – #5 Academic Voice

ALL credit for this goes to the talented Leslie Rowland, a PHD student and Associate Tutor in English at Indiana University. She ran a really fantastic workshop with some A Level Literature students in West Yorkshire this week, and the work she did was so great that I thought other teachers of essay subjects would benefit from it.

The powerpoint and handout below are all aimed at getting students to write in a more formal and appropriate academic tone, avoiding colloquialism and ensuring that they have the right amount of distance, while still making a personal response to a text.

You can contact Leslie at:

Powerpoint: Academic Expression

Handout: Academic Expression Handout

Posted in Projects, Teaching Ideas

#TMBrad – Teachmeet reflection..

I am always amazed by the dedication and sheer geekery of some teachers. At 10am on Saturday 11th July (the FINAL weekend of the school term), teachers from around Leeds and Bradford (plus, you know, Bahrain, just because…) descended on Appleton Academy for a day of inspiration and all round teacher banter.

The day was part of our project called ‘Writing for Bradford’ which you can see details about here.


The focus of our teachmeet was ‘getting kids to write’ and we had some really fantastic presenters and ideas throughout the day. Below I have written up my notes from the presentations, and included all the powerpoints, links and resources which the speakers have very kindly agreed to share.

Here is the ‘Storify’ document of the main tweets from the day: Storify

1. Keynote Presentation: Adam Henze (@henzebo)


Here is Adam’s blurb from the program:

Adam D. Henze is a third year PhD student in the Literacy, Culture, and Language Education department at Indiana University. Adam fell in love with the spoken and written word when he accidentally stumbled into the speech and debate office at his high school. He attended Western Kentucky University on a full speech scholarship, helping the squad win four national championships at the collegiate level. After graduating with an undergraduate degree in Communication Studies and English Writing, Adam attended his first poetry slam and immediately felt embraced by the spoken word community. In the past decade Adam has lectured and performed at over 40 universities, dozens of secondary and elementary schools, prisons, juvenile detention centers and other places of learning. Adam has performed in almost every state, Canada, Ireland, and is excited to return to England. He has a Masters degree in teaching, is an instructor in the English Department at Indiana University and is the director of a summer camp for fledgling high-school-aged poets at Gustavus Adolphus College in Minnesota.

Today Adam’s presentation is about “writing like a fan.” Fan culture has embraced the multimodal literacies inherent in mediums such as spoken word, hip hop, video games, comic books, music and film, and his session hopes to marry academic literary practices with the kinds of “reading” students value at home. The presentation will explore the evolving literacy practices in a globalized digital society by giving educators theory and practical lessons that they can apply to their classroom.

‘Literacy Beyone Literature’ – Prezi link here.

2. Mehwash Kauser (@meshishk) – ‘Chaucer to Tupac’


Mehwash is at the end of her second year of teaching, and is the KS3 curriculum coordinator at Appleton Academy. Her presentation centred around a SOW which she developed this year which aimed to engage students in canonical poetry by first hooking students in with rap and other elements of modern youth culture. The SOW was incredibly successful, and is being used by the National Literacy Trust as a national model of excellence; Mehwash will be presenting her work to colleagues around the country in order to support their own engaging planning for teenagers and classic literature.

You can find Mehwash’s powerpoint here.

3. Richie Dunk (@richie_dunk) – Letter Writing in Science

Richie is a physicist and Lead Practitioner at Appleton Academy. His presentation began with the problem that most students see scientists as being stereotypically brusque and lacking personality (his words, not mine!). Consider someone like Sheldon from the ‘Big Bang Theory’, and you understand why, when asked to write a letter in Science, some of Richie’s students were struggling to write with real personality and flair, even though they do it instinctively in English and History.


Richie talked about using photographs, and the personal letters of famous scientists in order to make them feel more immediate and relevant to students of today. These letters show people who had deep emotion, loving relationships and real life connections to politics and the wider world; by showing these to students, they can begin to see writing in Science as just as human and close to their own lives as everything else.

You can fin Richie’s powerpoint here.

4. Laura Hirst (@MissLHirst) – Using Post-it Notes to Motivate Students

Laura is just 3 weeks in to her NQT year in the English Department at Appleton Academy. She presented some strategies she has used with a challenging group of Y10 students, using post it notes to support, motivate and reward them.


You can find Laura’s powerpoint here.

5. Charlotte Wright (@commahound) – Writing a Class Novel

Charlotte taught in Bradford for 8 years, and is now KS5 leader in the English Department at Brigshaw High School. She presented the powerful work she has done in order to create class novels, where every child becomes a novelist, and every child feels celebrated. Charlotte uses multi-linear narratives (where the reader gets to choose which route to take through a story) to ensure that every child can write their own part of the text, while still being part of the whole.


You can find Charlotte’s powerpoint here.

6. Jennifer Webb (@funkypedagogy) – Engaging with Abstract Concepts

You can find a blog post about my presentation here, and my powerpoint here.


7. Curtis Wilson (@andrellcurtis) – Big Writing

Curtis is the owner of Andrell Education, and proponent of ‘Big Writing’ (his mum is the wonderful Ros Wilson, so there’s no surprise there!). Curtis spoke about the rationale behind the ‘Big Writing’ initiative, and shared some ways in which schools can get involved.


You can find out more about ‘Big Writing’ here, and look at Curtis’ powerpoint here.

8. Cheryl Boote (@CherylBoote) – Working Wall

Cheryl is only 3 weeks in to her NQT year in the English Department at Appleton Academy. She shared some of the work she has been doing on displays in her first ever classroom – the mantra being, they should be interactive, and celerate the work of students.


You can find Cheryl’s powerpoint here.

9. Annie Black (@AnnieBlack01) – Slow Writing


Annie is an English teacher and shared some work she has been doing on Slow Writing in her school, following a Research-Ed conference where she saw David Didau (@learningspy) speak. She talked about how Slow (or ‘focused’) Writing was helping her students to be more creative, and allowing them to explore new techniques.


You can find Annie’s powerpoint here.

10. Mark Miller (@goldfishbowlMM) – Revision Decisions

Mark is an English teacher at Dixons Kings Academy. Having done a great deal of work on using sentence structures with students, he shared a new idea to help them to break sentences down in order to explore the many structural and syntactical possibilities we have as writers.


You can see his own blog post about his talk here, and the powerpoint here.

11. Kat Lang (@kat_stubbs) – Literacy Ladders

Kat is an Assistant Director in charge of individual learning needs, AND the Head of English at Appleton Academy. Her presentation focused on literacy ladders as a way to get high quality, developed writing out of SEN students. Sudents use the ladders to rank writing techniques in order of difficulty, then attach ideas, vocabulary and sentence structures to tladderhe ladder in order to plan and scaffold their writing.

You can find Kat’s powerpoint here.

12. Leah Ellerbruch (@LEllerbruch) – Success Criteria

Leah is an English teacher and leads the Media GCSE at Appleton Academy. She presented how she developed and uses success criteria in order to support students’ writing, and give them ownership of their content and mark schemes.

You can find Leah’s powerpoint here.

13. Keynote Presentation: Leslie Rowland

Here is Leslie’s blurb from the program:

Leslie Rowland is currently a PhD student in Literacy, Culture, and Language Education at Indiana University. She grew up in Kentucky (you might hear a bit of a twang), but has lived all over the United States. She graduated magna cum laude from Murray State University with a degree in English Education (focus on literature). Her primary doctoral research focuses on teens, chronic illness narratives, and depictions of chronic illnesses in young adult literature. She also studies drama pedagogy, disability studies, and social justice issues. Before graduate studies, she was a high school English and theatre teacher, and a writer and editor for educational publishing companies. Her 48 writing, grammar, and vocabulary titles are used in PK-8th grade classrooms all over the world. A sincere Anglophile (as you will witness), she’s thrilled to be back in England.

Her presentation today is on remix writing in the digital age (i.e., a digital composition using at least three different modes of communication [i.e., combining words, sounds, and images into one creation on the computer]). She’ll show examples, present a little research, connect it to “academic” writing, and give suggestions on how to incorporate this fun “new” way of composing in your class—no matter the age of the student (or teacher). You’ll receive a handout with detailed lesson plans, resources, examples, and differentiation tips for using remix digital writing to motivate even your less-than-stellar students.


‘Digial Writing REMIX’ – Prezi link here.

Presentation handout here.

Posted in A Level Teaching, Teaching Ideas

A Level Literature Ideas #4: Engaging with abstract statements, questions and concepts…


Confused? This is what my students see when I ask them to think outside the box…

As I write this, I am sitting in a classroom with no windows. The air-con is broken. The kids are melting, their brains hurt, and I am trying to get them to engage with this question: “Is love just a lie?” (in relation to Romeo and Juliet) As you would expect, I am facing some pretty stiff opposition – they are not in the mood to tax themselves with abstract, multi-faceted questions. I think the weather will win today and we might do some colouring in instead.

On a normal day though, these abstract tasks are still difficult to approach with students. A couple of my own students have had this to say about my lessons:

“Miss, sometimes, I listen to you talk, and it’s just like a….a….I don’t know what it is…that’s the problem.” – Leonie, Y12

“When you ask me questions, all I see is a bunch of weird little guys in hats running around…messed up.” Ezra – Y11

My obviously erratic and perplexing teaching style aside, I think that Ezra’s ‘weird little guys’ are a metaphor for the sea of ideas and possibilities which abstract questions create for our students. They need a way to filter through these possibilities, and to engage with higher order tasks and concepts without getting lost at sea. There is a risk in any such resource or strategy, in providing too much scaffolding or guidance – this is not an essay structure – it is a key to unlock an idea and to begin to look at its various layers.

This approach has worked for me when doing the following types of task:

  • Thunks
  • Critical Viewpoints
  • Key Questions
  • Political Statements
  • Controversial Opinions
  • Debate Topics

My students all have a copy of this card:


I’ve trialled this with A Level Literature students, Y11 and Y9, though in its current state it is perhaps best suited to high ability learners.

The ‘Statement Card’ takes students through 5 stages to support their initial approach to an abstract statement, viewpoint or question… The exemplar statement is: “Literature is just a pale shadow of real life, and is therefore unable to tell us anything new.”


Define the key terms in the statement. What do they mean? What else could they mean? How are you defining them?

e.g. How do you define “literature”? Is it just the classic works of the canon, or does this include EVERYTHING which is written? What do we mean by “new”? “New” to WHO?! Does literature actually have to offer “new” things?


Does placing the statement in different contexts change the nature of the statement? What is the natural context? What are other possible contexts?


Context 1: reading for pleasure – do you have to learn something new if it’s just for fun? Or does literature just have to be entertaining?

Context 2: academic study – does a text need to have some deeper meaning or message to make it worth studying? Do we rely on literature to give us an original insight into human life?


What is the range of the impact of this statement? Think HUMAN to GLOBAL. Does it have impact on different levels?


Human impact – do we rely on literature to tell us things about ourselves?

Society – can literature have an impact on a larger group? Does literature echo the realities of groups/movements/events, or highlight patterns in human behaviour?


What are the extreme applications of the statement? Does it become ridiculous at the extremes? Do the extremes illuminate key issues?


Do we simply discard something because we can see nothing “new”? Who can really judge the level to which something is new or relevant? Can we really dismiss ALL art?!


Is there a solution to the problem/question? How could you CHANGE the statement to make it better?


Literature shouldn’t have to tell us something new, and it certainly doesn’t have to be an exact mirror image of real life. A better statement could be: “Literature should reflect, distorts, magnify and illuminate elements of the human existence.”

This is not an exhaustive list of approaches to these types of task, but it’s a start.

Here’s an example of one Y9 student’s work – the statement in question was “Dr Frankenstien is pure evil. Discuss.”

example 1

(RANGE) “The statement is only about one person, yet it does have a global range of impact. This is because it makes us think about what it means to be evil. Some may also wonder what it means to be human. The reason for this is because Dr. Frankenstein creates a ‘monster’ from all ‘human’ parts, and perhaps it is evil to corrupt the natural state of humanity.”

Example 2 (SOLUTION) “Dr Frankenstein is not evil, he is committing socially unacceptable acts in the name of science. At worst, he is an outcast.”

Here is a copy of the card and the exemplar: Statement Card , Statement Card Exemplar

If you would like an editable Word Doc version, drop me an email – happy to share! (

If you use this and it works, or make an alternative version, I would love to hear about it!

Posted in Projects

A New Project – Writing for Bradford

This summer, my school (Appleton Academy) will be hosting an exciting project to promote writing in Bradford schools. It will involve working collaboratively with professional writers, spoken word artists, academics, university students and teachers. The project is open to any interested schools in the Bradford/West Yorkshire area. Please see the information in this document: Writing Bradford leaflet

If you are interested in being involved, or would like more information, please contact me on my work email: or on Twitter @funkypedagogy